The game of chess is the most fascinating and intellectual pastime which the wisdom of antiquity has bequeathed to us.
A player is said to have the opposition when he can place his King directly in front of the adverse King, with only one square between them. This is often an important advantage in ending games.
After black's reply to 1.e4 with 1..e5, leaves him always trying to get into the game
After white's reply to 1.e4 e5 with 2.f4 the game is in its last throes
The Pawn moves only one square at a time, and that straight forward, except in the act of capturing, when it takes one step diagonally to the right or left file on to the square occupied by the man taken, and continues on that file until it captures another man.
For touching an adversary's man, when it cannot be captured, the offender must move his King.
The Queen is usually reckoned equal, in average situations, to two Rooks and a Pawn, but towards the end of a game she is hardly so valuable as two Rooks.
In Castling, the King must be moved first, or before the Rook is quitted. If the Rook be quitted before the King is touched, the opposing player may demand that the move of the Rook shall stand without the Castling being completed.
The Chess-board must be placed with a white square at the right-hand corner.
The Bishop and Knight, in contradistinction to the Queen and Rook, are called Minor Pieces.
The Bishop moves diagonally forwards or backwards, to the extent of the Board.
When a Piece or Pawn is in a situation to be taken by the enemy, it is said to be en prise. To put a piece en prise, is to play it so that it may be captured.
For playing a man to a square to which it cannot be legally moved, the adversary, at his option, may require him to move the man legally, or to move the King.
Each player, it will be observed, has eight superior Pieces or officers, and eight minor ones which are called Pawns; and, for the purpose of distinction, the Pieces and Pawns of one party are of a different color from those of the other.
To play with correctness and skill the ends of games, is an important but a very rare accomplishment, expect among the magnates of the game.
Be cautious of playing your Queen in front of your King and in subjecting yourself to a discovered check. It is better when check is given to your King to interpose a man that attacks the checking Piece than with one that does not.
It is the duty of the Umpire to determine all questions submitted to him according to these laws, when they apply, and according to his best judgment when they do not apply.
When neither party can give checkmate, the game is drawn
If, during the course of the game, it be discovered that any error or illegality has been committed in the moves of the pieces, the moves must be retraced, and the necessary correction made, without penalty.
The Queen is by much the most powerful of the forces.
If either player abandon the game by quitting the table in anger, or in an otherwise offensive manner; or by momentarily resigning the game; or refuses to abide by the decision of the Umpire, the game must be scored against him.
A Rook is of the value of five Pawns and a fraction, and may be exchanged for a minor Piece and two Pawns. Two Rooks may be exchanged for three minor Pieces.
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