• Our examination of computer viruses leads us to the conclusion that they are very close to what we might define as "artificial life." Rather than representing a scientific achievement, this probably represents a flaw in our definition.

    "Computer Viruses: A Form of Artificial Life?". Artificial Life II, Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Volume XII, edited by D. Farmer, C. Langton, S. Rasmussen, and C. Taylor, 1991.
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