• Women are penalized both for deviating from the masculine norm and for appearing to be masculine. When women try to establish their competence, they are scrutinized for evidence that they lack masculine (instrumental) characteristics as well as for signs that they no longer possess female (expressive) ones. They are taken to fail, in other words, both as a male and as a female.

    Kathleen Hall Jamieson (1995). “Beyond the Double Bind: Women and Leadership”, p.125, Oxford University Press on Demand
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